Previous research conducted by the French National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and the Environment (INRAE) has already demonstrated that Titanium Dioxide can enter the bloodstream, leading to harmful effects in the intestine. In a recent collaboration between INRAE and the National Laboratory of Metrology and Testing (LNA), it has been discovered that nanoparticles of Titanium Dioxide have the ability to directly penetrate the mucous membranes of the mouth. This finding raises concerns specifically regarding toothpaste.

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